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An Introduction to Repo Markets, 3rd Edition

توضیحات

“Providing a revealing insight into global repo markets and instruments, An Introduction to Repo Markets presents an accurate practitioner’s guide to a market that is often difficult to understand.” Bhavin Parmar, Equity Finance Trading

The repo markets are a vital part of the global financial system. Repo is used by virtually all market participants, as a funding and liquidity tool. The third edition of Professor Moorad Choudhry’s benchmark reference text An Introduction to Repo Markets brings readers up to date with the latest developments. It offers a detailed yet accessible and reader-friendly look at the instrument itself and its variants, and is aimed specifically at newcomers to the market or those unfamiliar with modern fixed income products. The author capitalises on his wealth of experience in the money markets to present this concise yet in-depth coverage of repo, set in the context of the financial markets as a whole.

Topics covered include:

  • Repo mechanics
  • Uses and applications
  • Basket repo
  • Synthetic repo and the total return swap
  • The money market yield curve
  • The Global Master Repurchase Agreement

Topics are well illustrated with Bloomberg screens, worked examples, exercises and case studies. Related issues such as financial market arithmetic are also introduced as necessary background for students and practitioners. This is essential reading for all those who require an introduction to the money markets and repo.


Dr Moorad Choudhry is Head of Treasury at KBC Financial Products in London. He is a Visiting Professor at the Department of Economics, London Metropolitan University, a Visiting Research Fellow at the ICMA Centre, University of Reading, a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Mathematical Trading and Finance, Cass Business School, and a Fellow of the Securities and Investment Institute.
Foreword.

Preface.

Preface to First Edition.

About the author.

1. INTRODUCTION TO REPO.

Importance of repo.

Market participants.

The repo instrument.

Characteristics of repo.

Classic repo.

Summary.

The sell/buy-back.

Stock lending.

Other repo products.

Tri-party repo.

Hold in custody repo.

Safe-keeping repo.

Borrow/Loan versus cash.

Bonds borrowed/collateral pledged.

Cross-currency repo.

Exotic repo structures.

Selected references.

2. MARKET BACKGROUND.

Discounting and present value.

Compounding.

Discounting.

Compounding more than once a year.

Internal rate of return.

Money market instruments.

Securities quoted on a yield basis.

Securities quoted on a discount basis.

Money market formulae.

Overview of bond market instruments.

Definition of a bond.

Fair pricing of bonds and bond yield.

The yield curve.

Theories of the yield curve.

Bond price/yield relationship.

Accrued interest.

Accrual conventions.

Selected references.

3. THE MECHANICS OF REPO.

Uses and economic functions.

Funding positions.

Covering short positions.

Yield enhancement.

Margin.

Initial margin.

Variation margin.

Other repo mechanics.

Repo dealing risks.

Interdependent risks.

Financial market risks.

Dealing with risk.

Selected reference.

4. BASKET REPO, SYNTHETIC REPO AND STRUCTURED FINANCE REPO.

Basket repo.

Illustration of basket repo trade: Malaysian Government securities.

Illustration using structured finance securities.

Synthetic repo via the total return swap.

Structured funding vehicles: repo conduit.

Securities repo conduit.

Selected reference.

5. THE UK GILT REPO MARKET.

Introduction.

Growth of market.

Gilt repo and other sterling money markets.

Impact on the gilt market.

Market structure.

Repo and stock lending.

Market participants: market making in repo.

Market participants: brokers.

Market participants: end-users.

Gilt repo and the yield curve.

Impact of the yield curve.

Hedging through repo.

Patterns of trading.

Maturities.

Specials.

Gilts settlement and CREST.

CREST settlement.

CREST reference prices.

Delivery by value.

Gilt repo code of best practice.

Selected references.

6. OVERVIEW OF REPO TRADING AND THE FUTURES CONTRACT IMPLIED REPO RATE.

Trading approaches.

Positive yield curve environment.

Negative yield curve environment.

Yield curve arbitrage.

Other spread trades.

Specials trading.

Credit intermediation.

Matched book trading.

Hedging tools.

Futures strip.

Forward rate agreements.

Interest-rate swaps.

The implied repo rate and basis trading.

Contract definition.

Conversion factors.

The cheapest-to-deliver bond.

The implied repo rate.

Hedging implications.

Selected references.

7. REPO AND THE YIELD CURVE.

Zero-coupon rates.

Discount factors and the discount function.

Spot and forward rates: boot-strapping from the par yield curve.

Spot rates and boot-strapping.

Implied spot and forward rates.

The Relationship between par, zero and forward rates.

Exercises and calculations.

Forward rates: breakeven principle.

Examples.

Forward rates and compounding.

Forward pricing and repo.

Selected references.

8. THE GLOBAL MASTER REPURCHASE AGREEMENT.

TBMA/ICMA Agreement.

The Global Master Repurchase Agreement.

Scope.

Structure.

Key principles.

Title transfer.

Master netting agreement.

Margin maintenance.

Negotiation of the GMRA.

Margin maintenance.

Failure to deliver.

Condition precedent.

Set-off.

Automatic early termination.

Product- and counterparty-specific amendments and additional annexes.

Gilt Repo Legal Agreement.

Select references.

9. ACCOUNTING, TAX AND REGULATORY CAPITAL ISSUES IN REPO.

Accounting, tax and capital issues.

Accounting.

Taxation.

Capital treatment.

Capital Adequacy Directive.

CAD treatment for repo.

Balance sheet implications.

The Basel II Framework.

Basel II Framework.

Exercises.

Answers to exercises.

Case study: ABC Bank plc.

Glossary.

Appendix A: Duration.

Appendix B: Basis Trading and the CTD Bond.

Appendix C: Volatility.

Abbreviations.

Index.