To enable them to contend with the daily process of generation, dispatch and supply, the electricity markets have risen to new levels of sophistication and complexity. Continued advances are required to effectively contend with issues such as demand management, environmental efficiency and security of supply. In addition, policy makers and regulators have a commitment to underwrite the performance of the industry model, and to intervene as necessary in structures, instruments and conditions.
The relationship between policy objectives, free markets, and the technicalities of electricity production, network flow, supply and consumption, is not a simple one. In this context the book relates electricity market structures, economics for electricity, and derivative pricing of electricity. It is intended as a companion for all those with an interest in the electricity supply industry, including participants, traders, students, stakeholders, and policy makers and implementers.
1. The Basics.
1.1 How electricity works.
1.2 Early development of the Electricity Supply Industry (ESI).
1.3 The lifecycle of electric power.
1.4 Development, structure, coordination, legislation of the ESI.
1.5 New ownership structure.
1.6 Selected country examples.
2. Structure, Operation and Management of the Electricity Supply Chain.
2.1 Energy source.
2.2 Power generation.
2.3 High voltage transmission, network operation, system operation.
3. Policy – Issues, Priorities. Stakeholders, Influencers.
3.1 Agendas and policy formation.
3.2 Policy issues and drivers.
3.3 Policy outcomes and instruments.
3.4 Energy policies.
3.6 Domestic institutional players.
3.7 The role and influence of international players.
4. Liberalisation, Deregulation and Regulation.
4.1 The liberalisation paradigm.
4.3 Conditions for reform.
4.4 The role of the state.
4.5 Measures of liberalisation and deregulation.
4.8 Industry key performance indicators.
5. Market Structures for Electricity.
5.1 The basics of plant dispatch.
5.2 The centrally managed model.
5.3 The single buyer.
5.4 The pool model.
5.5 The bilateral model.
5.6 Imbalance and balancing.
5.7 Reserve contracts.
5.8 Wholesale markets.
5.9 Power exchanges
5.10 Advanced pool markets.
6. Power Capacity.
6.1 The definition of capacity.
6.2 Requirements for capacity.
6.3 The basic economics of provision of capacity and reserve by generators.
6.4 Modelling the capability of generation capacity.
6.5 Modelling capacity capability from the consumer side.
6.6 Commercial mechanisms – the generator perspective.
6.7 Capacity provision – the supplier perspective.
6.8 Capacity provision – the network operator’s perspective.
6.9 The system operator’s perspective.
6.10 Capacity facilitation – contractual instruments.
6.11 Use of options to convey probability information.
6.12 Effect of price caps on capacity and prices.
7.1 Infrastructure costs to be recovered.
7.2 Counterparties for payment and receipt.
7.3 Basic charging elements for location related charging.
7.4 Models for designation of electrical location.
7.5 Nodal energy prices, virtual transmission and nodal market contracts.
7.6 The energy complex.
7.7 Environmental borders.
8. Environment, Amenity, Corporate Responsibility.
8.1 Environmental pressure.
8.3 The policy debate.
8.4 Regulation and incentive for restricting emissions and other impacts.
8.5 Other policy tools for environmental enhancement.
8.6 Fuel labelling and power content labelling.
8.7 The cost of environmental enhancement.
8.8 Valuation of environmental factors.
8.9 Corporate responsibility.
8.10 The environmental impact of consumption.
9. Price and Derivatives Modelling.
9.1 Price processes and distributions.
9.2 Volatility modelling.
9.3 Correlation modeling.
9.4 Pricing electricity derivatives.
9.5 Establishing fundamental relationships.
9.6 Market completeness.
9.7 Emission permit prices.
9.8 Network price volatility.
10. Economic Principles in Relation to the ESI.
10.1 Basic economic principles in the ESI context.
10.2 Optimal pricing by asset owners.
10.3 Regulated prices.
10.4 Taxes and subsidies.
10.5 Games, interaction and behaviour.
10.6 Environmental economics.
10.7 Market failure.
10.9 The political economics of liberalisation.
11. Financial Modelling of Power Plant.
11.1 Power plant financial model.
11.2 The baseload contract.
11.3 The planned flexibility contract.
11.4 The vanilla option contract.
11.5 Extra flexibility.
11.6 Finance and hedging.
12. Security of Supply.
12.1 Supply chain.
12.2 Reserve margin.
12.3 The responsibility for security of supply.
A.1 Plant life usage.
A.2 Power plant failure and physical risk.
A.3 Reactive power.
A.4 Direct current load flow modeling.