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Quest for Balance: The Human Element in Performance Management Systems



"André de Waal has produced a rigorous study of the behavioral and organizational factors that influence implementation success for new performance management systems. It is an important addition to the literature for its focus on recognizing and overcoming the barriers to introducing new management systems."
-Robert S. Kaplan
Harvard Business School

"When management is about getting things done through people, performance management is about monitoring the results of these actions. André de Waal clearly demonstrates that, with respect to the design and use of performance management systems, human behavior and organization culture are as important as the framework itself."
-Arend R. de Jong
Executive Vice President and Corporate Controller
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

"This book provides excellent insight into the behavioral aspects involved in applying performance management. Through in-depth research André de Waal has uncovered those human elements that, when focused on by organizations, will help them improve the use of their performance management system."
-David C. M. Hamill
President and CEO of Philips Lighting Holding BV
Member of the Group Management Committee of Royal Philips Electronics

"André de Waal's book-Quest for Balance-makes fascinating reading. He tackles one of the crucial issues facing many organizations today-how to make measurement work-and offers some valuable insights."
-Professor Andy Neely
Director of the Center for Business Performance at Cranfield School of Management

"Dramatic improvements can be made through linking activity-based costing to performance management. But reaping this harvest requires the human element to change. De Waal's Quest for Balance provides real company insights on what it takes to be successful. It should be a key part of your implementation efforts."
-Steve Player
Managing Director
The Player Group

Andre´ A. de Waal is a partner with Mulland Consulting Group, the Netherlands. He has master's degrees in chemistry and business administration, a doctoral degree in economics, and is certified in production and inventory management. As a consultant, he has focused on projects including the selection and implementation of production, logistic, and financial software packages; cost analyses; and designing logistic concepts and information technology infrastructures. He recently worked on a benchmark study for a Dutch multinational performed in Japan, Germany, and the United States. De Waal has published over forty articles and twelve books on the topic of performance management.


1. Brief History of Performance Management Systems.

Purpose of Performance Management Systems.

Development of Performance Management Systems.

Benefits of Performance Management Systems.

Issues with Critical Success Factors, Key Performance Indicators, and the Balanced Scorecard.

Importance of Behavioral Factors.

2. Identifying the Behavioral Factors.

Criteria for Regular Use.

Behavioral Factors.

Performance Management System.

Controlled System.

Controlling System.

Internal Environment.

External Environment.

Overview of Behavioral Factors.

Operationalizing the Behavioral Factors.

3. Cases.

Description of the Case Studies.

Academic Hospital Utrecht.


European IT Services.

Analysis of Case Studies.


4. Relationship Between Performance Management System Uses and Management Styles.

Performance Management System Uses.

Management Styles.


Detailing of Management Styles.

Organizational Performance.

Type of Organization.

Age and Experience of Managers.

5. Performance Management System and Managerial Behavior Survey.

Description of the Survey.

Analysis of the Survey.

Results of the Survey.

Interview Results.

Discussion of Results.



Appendix A: Case Study Protocol.

Appendix B: Questionnaire.