پارسی   English   العربیه

The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices


For at least the last decade, there has been a growing sense of frustration among market professionals with the attempts by academics to account for the behaviour of financial markets. Very experienced practical people have become highly critical of traditional teaching in universities which is grounded in the so-called Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

In this stimulating new book, the authors bridge the gap between academic and practical experience by advancing the liquidity theory of asset prices. For many investment managers, liquidity is a crucial subject to which academics have paid too little attention. The book demonstrates that knowledge of liquidity is vital for understanding markets. For academics who have not been thoroughly exposed to working in financial markets, the liquidity theory of asset prices will add to the explanatory power of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

The liquidity theory of asset prices explains that an investment transaction often takes place because someone either has cash to invest or needs to raise cash. In the economy as a whole the difference between the amount of cash waiting to be invested and the need to raise cash can be substantial; moreover, an imbalance can persist for many months. Markets react accordingly, going up or down as the case may be. When a market is rising, people become optimistic, and pessimistic when a market is falling. If a trend continues investors start acting as in a crowd. Crowd psychology becomes important. Booms and busts follow.

An understanding of these forces is important not only for investors but also for industrialist and governments. This book is the only practical explanation of the liquidity theory of asset prices currently available and the text has been enhanced by its use on MBA and Continuous Professional Development courses. It is guaranteed to go a long way to remedying an embarrassing lack of understanding of an economic force which has moved to the centre stage of financial market understanding.

Gordon Pepper has the unusual combination of an economics degree from Cambridge and actuarial training. Immediately after he finished taking examinations, he became a dealer on the Floor of the London Stock Exchange. His ‘postgraduate university’ was the market place, where he underwent the harshest of disciplines. Forecasts based on conventional theories were often wrong. The inescapable conclusion was that these theories were either incorrect or incomplete.
Pepper was the joint founder of W. Greenwell & Co’s gilt-edged business (that is, the UK government bond business), which arguably became one of the leading bond-advisory businesses in the world, the advice being about both the best investments and the optimum way to execute business. For more than ten years he was the premier analyst in the gilt-edged market and was often described as the guru of that market. He was the principal author of Greenwell’s Monetary Bulletin, which, in the 1970s, became one of the most widely read monetary publications produced in the United Kingdom.
Pepper is the author of three books and the co-author of a fourth: Money, Credit and Inflation (1990), Money, Credit and Asset Prices (1994), Inside Thatcher’s Monetarist Revolution (1998), and (with Michael Oliver) Monetarism under Thatcher – Lessons for the Future (2001). He is also chairman of Lombard Street Research Ltd, which is one of the UK’s leading independent firms carrying out investment research and specialising in analysis of money, credit and flows of funds. Summarising, Pepper’s particular strength is the combination of practitioner and academic. Above all, he writes with great authority from his knowledge of what actually happens in the marketplace.

Michael J. Oliver is currently Professor of Economics at École Supérieure de Commerce de Rennes and a director of Lombard Street Associates, UK.
He graduated in economic history at the University of Leicester and was awarded his PhD in economics and economic history from Manchester Metropolitan University. He has held posts at the universities of the West of England, Leeds, Sunderland and has been a Visiting Professor at Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania and Colby College, Maine.
He is the author of several books, including Whatever Happened To Monetarism? Economic Policy-making and Social Learning in the United Kingdom Since 1979 (1997); Exchange Rate Regimes in the Twentieth Century (with Derek Aldcroft, 1998) and Monetarism under Thatcher – Lessons for the Future (with Gordon Pepper, 2001). He has just finished co-editing a book (with Derek Aldcroft) entitled Economic Disaster of the Twentieth Century, which is being published by Edward Elgar in 2006. He has contributed articles to Economic History Review, Twentieth Century British History, Economic Affairs, Contemporary British History, Economic Review and Essays in Economic and Business History.

Foreword by Russell Napier.


About the Authors.

List of Tables, Figures and Charts.



1 Types of Trades in Securities.

2 Persistent Liquidity Trades.

3 Extrapolative Expectations.

4 Discounting Liquidity Transactions.

5 Cyclical Changes Associated with Business Cycles.

6 Shifts in the Savings Demand for Money.


7 Financial Bubbles.

8 Debt Deflation.


9 Creation of Printing-press Money.

10 Control of Fountain-pen Money and the Counterparts of Broad Money.

11 Modern Portfolio Theory and the Nature of Risk.

12 Technical Analysis and Crowds.

13 The Intuitive Approach to Asset Prices.

14 Forms of Analysis.


15 The UK Markets Prior to 1972.

16 The US Equity Market 1960–2002.

17 Two Forecasts.

18 Debt Deflation, Practical Experience.


19 Monitoring Current Data for the Monetary Aggregates.

20 Monitoring Data for the Supply of Money.

21 The Different Sectors of the Economy.